Review of: Supremacy 1942

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Supremacy 1942

The Struggle for Air Supremacy (Air Defence Great Britain) von Air Historical Branch bei kengohrickconst.com - ISBN - ISBN Wer dieser Tage das Schlachtfeld von Supremacy betritt, wird vermutlich mehr Spieler als sonst antreffen. Oder anders ausgedrückt: Die. Supremacy ist ein Online-Echtzeit-Strategiespiel des Hamburger Herstellers Bytro Labs, das unter anderem über Bigpoint und Gamigo vertrieben wird.

Supremacy 1914: Taktik zum Einstieg

Wer dieser Tage das Schlachtfeld von Supremacy betritt, wird vermutlich mehr Spieler als sonst antreffen. Oder anders ausgedrückt: Die. The Struggle for Air Supremacy (Air Defence Great Britain) von Air Historical Branch bei kengohrickconst.com - ISBN - ISBN Ich habe hier ein paar Tipps für euch, um in jedem 2. Spiel auf dem Treppchen zu stehen: Grundsätzlich kann man JEDE Supremacy-Runde in 3.

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Supremacy 1914: 5 tips for newbie footsoldiers

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Supremacy 1942

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Am Tag 30 solltet ihr nun min. The Game. In Supremacy , you become head of a mighty nation in precarious Europe after the turn of the century. You face the challenge to become the undisputed sovereign leader of the whole continent using smart diplomacy or simply the brute force of your glorious armies. By April , the Soviet Supreme Command agreed to assume the defensive so as to "consolidate the captured ground." According to Zhukov, "During the winter offensive, the forces of the Western Front had advanced from 70 to km, which somewhat improved the overall operational and strategic situation on the Western sector.": MMO For Kids. Farmerama; My Free Farm 2; Star Stable; Charm Farm; Hero Zero; Lady Popular; GoodGame Big Farm. The World War I real-time strategy browsergame. We use cookies to improve user experience and analyse game usage. Some of the cookies used can be turned off ("optional cookies") while others are required to work at all times. Railguns: though not the most powerful weapon in the game, They are the most powerful Artillery piece with a range far superior to the standard Artillery and the sea-faring Battleship. For this reason, they are the weapon of choice for seige operations against enemy fortresses containing large numbers of artillery and also fairly useful for eliminating enemy Battleships that stray too close to. Journal of Slavic Military Studies. The offensive to capture Skrill Gebühren Germany and Berlin started on 16 April with an assault on the German front lines on the Oder and Neisse rivers. Finland until Für unsere Spiele gelten die folgenden Bedingungen: AGB, Datenschutzerklärung. Neuer Spieler. Schließen. Neuer Spieler. Anmeldung mit. Einloggen. Supremacy Der erste Weltkrieg in Echtzeit. Pulverfass Europa: Panzer, Schlachten. Wer dieser Tage das Schlachtfeld von Supremacy betritt, wird vermutlich mehr Spieler als sonst antreffen. Oder anders ausgedrückt: Die. Call of War (Supremacy ) is a Browser F2P MMO Strategy developed by Bytro Labs - kengohrickconst.com Hitler's insistence on holding the Dnieper line, even when facing the prospect of catastrophic defeat, was compounded by his conviction that the Cherkassy pocket could break out and even advance to Kiev, but Manstein was more concerned about being able to advance to the edge of the pocket and then implore the surrounded forces to 1 Fc Köln 2021 out. El Gordo Preise F. Merriam Webster. The character of the war was thus determined by the political leaders and their ideology to a much greater extent than in any other theatre of Supremacy 1942 War II. NYU Press. I had Supremacy 1942 send even my closest generals packing, two army generals, for example … I could only tell these gentlemen, "Get yourself back to Germany as rapidly as you can — but leave the army in my charge. German production of explosives from to was Keno Live Ziehung. Germany's military production was tied to resources outside its area of control, a dynamic not found amongst the Allies. 132 Dollar In Euro offensive to capture central Germany and Berlin started Champions League-Sieger 16 April with an Slot Igri on the German front lines on the Oder and Neisse rivers. Pixel Spiele York: Penguin Books Ltd. The term white supremacy is used in some academic studies of racial power to denote a system of structural or societal racism which privileges white people over others, regardless of the presence or the absence of racial hatred. Most civilians were left to make their own way east, with only industry-related workers evacuated with the equipment; much of the population was left behind to the mercy of the invading forces. Jörgensen, Christer. New York: Penguin Books,
Supremacy 1942 The No. 1 real time WW2 strategy game to be played in multiplayer. Play for free online or without download on mobile! Railguns: though not the most powerful weapon in the game, They are the most powerful Artillery piece with a range far superior to the standard Artillery and the sea-faring Battleship. For this reason, they are the weapon of choice for seige operations against enemy fortresses containing large numbers of artillery and also fairly useful for eliminating enemy Battleships that stray too close to Coal: 5, By April , the Soviet Supreme Command agreed to assume the defensive so as to "consolidate the captured ground." According to Zhukov, "During the winter offensive, the forces of the Western Front had advanced from 70 to km, which somewhat improved the overall operational and strategic situation on the Western sector.":

Train your soldiers to be an elite troop in the barracks. Build your army of strong soldiers with deadly weapons, powerful tanks, submarines and fast airplanes.

Hire spies to bring you info and stay one step ahead of your opponents. Wargame offers multiple challenges, which only the best strategy master will solve.

Are you ready for it? Strategic Military Browsergame Together with your army you will overcome your enemies and rob their resources. The Anti-Defamation League defines white separatism as "a form of white supremacy"; [] the Southern Poverty Law Center defines both white nationalism and white separatism as "ideologies based on white supremacy.

Use of the term to self-identify has been criticized as a dishonest rhetorical ploy. The Anti-Defamation League argues that white supremacists use the phrase because they believe it has fewer negative connotations than the term white supremacist.

They argued the existence of "a distinction between the white supremacist's desire to dominate as in apartheid , slavery , or segregation and complete separation by race".

The Tuskegee Institute has estimated that 3, blacks were the victims of lynchings in the United States between and , with the peak occurring in the s at a time of economic stress in the South and increasing political suppression of blacks.

If 1, whites were also lynched during this period, blacks were disproportionally targeted, representing Wood, "lynching photographs constructed and perpetuated white supremacist ideology by creating permanent images of a controlled white citizenry juxtaposed to images of helpless and powerless black men.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from White supremacies. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 7 December Racist belief in the superiority of white people.

General forms. Related topics. Allophilia Anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Cultural assimilation Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social model of disability Social stigma Stereotype threat The talk White privilege.

Main category: White supremacy in the United States. See also: Racism in the United States. Main article: White supremacy in U.

Further information: Apartheid and Baasskap. Francis Nick Griffin Michael H. Retrieved November 11, Although white racist activists must adopt a political identity of whiteness, the flimsy definition of whiteness in modern culture poses special challenges for them.

In both mainstream and white supremacist discourse, to be white is to be distinct from those marked as non-white, yet the placement of the distinguishing line has varied significantly in different times and places.

NYU Press. White Supremacy. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. The Guardian. September 3, That in this free government all white men are and of right ought to be entitled to equal civil and political rights; that the servitude of the African race, as existing in these States, is mutually beneficial to both bond and free, and is abundantly authorized and justified by the experience of mankind, and the revealed will of the Almighty Creator, as recognized by all Christian nations; while the destruction of the existing relations between the two races, as advocated by our sectional enemies, would bring inevitable calamities upon both and desolation upon the fifteen slave-holding states.

Stephens Vice President of the Confederate States , March 21, , Savannah, Georgia Archived November 17, , at the Wayback Machine : "Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery—subordination to the superior race—is his natural and normal condition.

Frank Baum's Editorials on the Sioux Nation". Archived from the original on December 9, Retrieved Full text of both, with commentary by professor A.

Saito The U. National Archives and Records Administration. August 7, Archived from the original press release on October 4, Retrieved October 3, Majority opinion.

Loving v. Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations. Harvard University Press. The questions deal with most of the major racial issues that became focal in the middle of the twentieth century: integration of public accommodations, school integration, residential integration, and job discrimination [and] racial intermarriage and willingness to vote for a black presidential candidate.

The figure shows that there ha been a massive and continuing movement of the American public from overwhelming acceptance of the principle of segregated schooling in the early s toward acceptance of the principle of integrated schooling.

Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Selected Readings. Pine Forge Press. In only 42 percent of a national sample of whites reported that they believed blacks to be equal to whites in innate intelligence; since the late s, however, around 80 percent of white Americans have rejected the idea of inherent black inferiority.

New Left Review. Guilford Publications. Bring the war home: The white power movement and paramilitary America.

The white power movement that emerged from the Vietnam era shared some common attributes with earlier racist movements in the United States, but it was no mere echo.

Unlike previous iterations of the Ku Klux Klan and white supremacist vigilantism, the white power movement did not claim to serve the state.

Instead, white power made the state its target, declaring war against the federal government in The Nation.

Retrieved August 11, The rapid progress of Operation Bagration threatened to cut off and isolate the German units of Army Group North bitterly resisting the Soviet advance towards Tallinn.

Despite a ferocious attack at the Sinimäed Hills , Estonia, the Soviet Leningrad Front failed to break through the defence of the smaller, well-fortified army detachment "Narwa" in terrain not suitable for large-scale operations.

Three armies were pitted there against the Finns, among them several experienced guards rifle formations. The attack breached the Finnish front line of defence in Valkeasaari on 10 June and the Finnish forces retreated to their secondary defence line, the VT-line.

The Soviet attack was supported by a heavy artillery barrage, air bombardments and armoured forces. The VT-line was breached on 14 June and after a failed counterattack in Kuuterselkä by the Finnish armoured division, the Finnish defence had to be pulled back to the VKT-line.

After heavy fighting in the battles of Tali-Ihantala and Ilomantsi , Finnish troops finally managed to halt the Soviet attack. Whether Stalin was unable or unwilling to come to the aid of the Polish resistance is disputed.

Two months later, the Soviet forces won the battle and entered Slovakia. The Soviet Union finally entered Warsaw on 17 January , after the city was destroyed and abandoned by the Germans.

Over three days, on a broad front incorporating four army fronts , the Red Army launched the Vistula—Oder Offensive across the Narew River and from Warsaw.

The Soviets outnumbered the Germans on average by 5— in troops, in artillery, in tanks and in self-propelled artillery.

During the full course of the Vistula—Oder operation 23 days , the Red Army forces sustained , total casualties killed, wounded and missing and lost 1, tanks and assault guns.

On 25 January , Hitler renamed three army groups. In the south, the German attempts, in Operation Konrad , to relieve the encircled garrison at Budapest failed and the city fell on 13 February.

On 6 March, the Germans launched what would be their final major offensive of the war, Operation Spring Awakening , which failed by 16 March.

OKW claim German losses of 77, killed, , wounded and , missing, with a total of , men, on the Eastern Front during January and February The East Prussian operation , though often overshadowed by the Vistula—Oder operation and the later battle for Berlin, was in fact one of the largest and costliest operations fought by the Red Army throughout the war.

During the period it lasted 13 January — 25 April , it cost the Red Army , casualties, and 3, tanks and assault guns. During the first two weeks of April, the Red Army performed their fastest front redeployment of the war.

While this redeployment was in progress, gaps were left in the lines and the remnants of the German 2nd Army, which had been bottled up in a pocket near Danzig, managed to escape across the Oder.

The Soviet offensive had two objectives. Because of Stalin's suspicions about the intentions of the Western Allies to hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet sphere of influence , the offensive was to be on a broad front and was to move as rapidly as possible to the west, to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible.

But the over-riding objective was to capture Berlin. The two were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won quickly unless Berlin was taken.

Another consideration was that Berlin itself held strategic assets, including Adolf Hitler and part of the German atomic bomb program.

The offensive to capture central Germany and Berlin started on 16 April with an assault on the German front lines on the Oder and Neisse rivers.

After several days of heavy fighting the Soviet 1BF and 1UF punched holes through the German front line and were fanning out across central Germany.

They were now free to move west towards the British 21st Army Group and north towards the Baltic port of Stralsund. On 29 and 30 April, as the Soviet forces fought their way into the centre of Berlin, Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun and then committed suicide by taking cyanide and shooting himself.

Helmuth Weidling , defence commandant of Berlin, surrendered the city to the Soviet forces on 2 May.

German losses in this period of the war remain impossible to determine with any reliability. It included the phrase All forces under German control to cease active operations at hours Central European time on 8 May The war in Europe was over.

In the Soviet Union the end of the war is considered to be 9 May, when the surrender took effect Moscow time. This date is celebrated as a national holiday — Victory Day — in Russia as part of a two-day 8—9 May holiday and some other post-Soviet countries.

The ceremonial Victory parade was held in Moscow on 24 June. The German Army Group Centre initially refused to surrender and continued to fight in Czechoslovakia until about 11 May.

A small German garrison on the Danish island of Bornholm refused to surrender until they were bombed and invaded by the Soviets. The island was returned to the Danish government four months later.

After the German defeat, Joseph Stalin promised his allies Truman and Churchill, that he would attack the Japanese within 90 days of the German surrender.

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria began on 8 August , with an assault on the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and neighbouring Mengjiang ; the greater offensive would eventually include northern Korea , southern Sakhalin , and the Kuril Islands.

Apart from the Battles of Khalkhin Gol , it marked the only military action of the Soviet Union against Imperial Japan ; at the Yalta Conference , it had agreed to Allied pleas to terminate the neutrality pact with Japan and enter the Second World War's Pacific theatre within three months after the end of the war in Europe.

While not a part of the Eastern Front operations, it is included here because the commanders and much of the forces used by the Red Army came from the European Theatre of operations and benefited from the experience gained there.

In many ways this was a 'perfect' operation, delivered with the skill gained during the bitter fighting with the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe over four years.

The distinctly brutal nature of warfare on the Eastern Front was exemplified by an often wilful disregard for human life by both sides.

It was also reflected in the ideological premise for the war, which also saw a momentous clash between two directly opposed ideologies.

Aside from the ideological conflict, the mindframe of the leaders of Germany and the Soviet Union , Hitler and Stalin respectively, contributed to the escalation of terror and murder on an unprecedented scale.

Stalin and Hitler both disregarded human life in order to achieve their goal of victory. This included the terrorisation of their own people, as well as mass deportations of entire populations.

All these factors resulted in tremendous brutality both to combatants and civilians that found no parallel on the Western Front. According to Time magazine : "By measure of manpower, duration, territorial reach and casualties, the Eastern Front was as much as four times the scale of the conflict on the Western Front that opened with the Normandy invasion.

Army Chief of Staff , calculated that without the Eastern Front, the United States would have had to double the number of its soldiers on the Western Front.

In War II Russia occupies a dominant position and is the decisive factor looking toward the defeat of the Axis in Europe. While in Sicily the forces of Great Britain and the United States are being opposed by 2 German divisions, the Russian front is receiving attention of approximately German divisions.

Whenever the Allies open a second front on the Continent, it will be decidedly a secondary front to that of Russia; theirs will continue to be the main effort.

Without Russia in the war, the Axis cannot be defeated in Europe, and the position of the United Nations becomes precarious.

With Germany crushed, there is no power in Europe to oppose her tremendous military forces. The war inflicted huge losses and suffering upon the civilian populations of the affected countries.

Behind the front lines, atrocities against civilians in German-occupied areas were routine, including those carried out as part of the Holocaust.

German and German-allied forces treated civilian populations with exceptional brutality, massacring whole village populations and routinely killing civilian hostages see German war crimes.

According to British historian Geoffrey Hosking , "The full demographic loss to the Soviet peoples was even greater: since a high proportion of those killed were young men of child-begetting age, the postwar Soviet population was 45 to 50 million smaller than post projections would have led one to expect.

After the war, following the Yalta conference agreements between the Allies, the German populations of East Prussia and Silesia were displaced to the west of the Oder—Neisse line , in what became one of the largest forced migrations of people in world history.

Much of the combat took place in or close to populated areas, and the actions of both sides contributed to massive loss of civilian life and tremendous material damage.

The largest number of civilian deaths in a single city was 1. Wolves and foxes fleeing westward from the killing zone, as the Soviet army advanced between and , were responsible for a rabies epidemic that spread slowly westwards, reaching the coast of the English Channel by The Soviet Union and Nazi Germany were both ideologically driven states by Soviet communism and by Nazism respectively , in which the foremost political leaders had near-absolute power.

The character of the war was thus determined by the political leaders and their ideology to a much greater extent than in any other theatre of World War II.

Adolf Hitler exercised tight control over the German war-effort, spending much of his time in his command bunkers most notably at Rastenburg in East Prussia , at Vinnitsa in Ukraine , and under the garden of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin.

At crucial periods in the war he held daily situation-conferences at which he used his remarkable talent for public speaking to overwhelm opposition from his generals and from the OKW staff with rhetoric.

In part because of the unexpected degree of German success in the Battle of France despite the warnings of the professional military Hitler believed himself a military genius, with a grasp of the total war-effort that eluded his generals.

In August , when Walther von Brauchitsch commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht and Fedor von Bock appealed for an attack on Moscow, Hitler instead ordered the encirclement and capture of Ukraine, in order to acquire the farmland, industry, and natural resources of that country.

In the winter of — Hitler believed that his obstinate refusal to allow the German armies to retreat had saved Army Group Centre from collapse.

He later told Erhard Milch :. I had to act ruthlessly. I had to send even my closest generals packing, two army generals, for example … I could only tell these gentlemen, "Get yourself back to Germany as rapidly as you can — but leave the army in my charge.

And the army is staying at the front. The success of this hedgehog defence outside Moscow led Hitler to insist on the holding of territory when it made no military sense, and to sack generals who retreated without orders.

Officers with initiative were replaced with yes-men or with fanatical Nazis. The disastrous encirclements later in the war — at Stalingrad , Korsun and many other places — resulted directly from Hitler's orders.

This idea of holding territory led to another failed plan, dubbed [ by whom? Many divisions became cut off in "fortress" cities, or wasted uselessly in secondary theatres, because Hitler would not sanction retreat or voluntarily abandon any of his conquests.

Frustration at Hitler's leadership in the war was one of the factors in the attempted coup d'etat of , but after the failure of the 20 July Plot Hitler considered the army and its officer corps suspect and came to rely on the Schutzstaffel SS and Nazi party members to prosecute the war.

Hitler's direction of the war ultimately proved disastrous for the German Army, though the skill, loyalty, professionalism and endurance of officers and soldiers enabled him to keep Germany fighting to the end.

Winterbotham wrote of Hitler's signal to Gerd von Rundstedt to continue the attack to the west during the Battle of the Bulge :.

From experience we had learned that when Hitler started refusing to do what the generals recommended, things started to go wrong, and this was to be no exception.

Joseph Stalin bore the greatest responsibility for some of the disasters at the beginning of the war for example, the Battle of Kiev , but equally deserves praise for the subsequent success of the Soviet Red Army , which depended on the unprecedentedly rapid industrialisation of the Soviet Union , which Stalin's internal policy had made the first priority throughout the s.

Stalin's Great Purge of the Red Army in the late s involved the legal prosecution of many of the senior command, many of whom the courts convicted and sentenced to death or to imprisonment.

The executed included Mikhail Tukhachevsky , a proponent of armoured blitzkrieg. Stalin promoted some obscurantists like Grigory Kulik who opposed the mechanisation of the army and the production of tanks, but on the other hand purged the older commanders who had held their positions since the Russian Civil War of —, and who had experience, but were deemed "politically unreliable".

This opened up their places to the promotion of many younger officers that Stalin and the NKVD regarded as in line with Stalinist politics.

Many [ quantify ] of these newly promoted commanders proved terribly inexperienced, but some later became very successful.

Soviet tank-output remained the largest in the world. From the foundation of the Red Army in , political distrust of the military had led to a system of "dual command", with every commander paired with a political commissar , a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Larger units had military councils consisting of the commander, commissar and chief of staff — commissars ensured the loyalty of the commanding officers and implemented Party orders.

Following the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland , of the Baltic states and of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina in —, Stalin insisted on the occupation of every fold of the newly Sovietized territories; this move westward positioned troops far from their depots, in salients that left them vulnerable to encirclement.

As tension heightened in spring, , Stalin desperately tried not to give Hitler any provocation that Berlin could use as an excuse for a German attack; Stalin refused to allow the military to go on the alert — even as German troops gathered on the borders and German reconnaissance planes overflew installations.

This refusal to take necessary action was instrumental in the destruction of major portions of the Red Air Force, lined up on its airfields, in the first days of the German-Soviet war.

At the crisis of the war, in the autumn of , Stalin made many concessions to the army: the government restored unitary command by removing the Commissars from the chain of command.

Beginning in autumn , units that had proved themselves by superior performance in combat were given the traditional "Guards" title. These concessions were combined with ruthless discipline: Order No.

Infractions by military and politruks were punished with transferral to penal battalions and to penal companies which carried out especially hazardous duties, such as serving as tramplers to clear Nazi minefields.

As it became clear that the Soviet Union would win the war, Stalin ensured that propaganda always mentioned his leadership of the war; he sidelined the victorious generals and never allowed them to develop into political rivals.

After the war the Soviets once again purged the Red Army though not as brutally as in the s and demoted many successful officers including Zhukov , Malinovsky and Koniev to unimportant positions.

The enormous territorial gains of presented Germany with vast areas to pacify and administer. For the majority of people of the Soviet Union, the Nazi invasion was viewed as a brutal act of unprovoked aggression.

While it is important to note that not all parts of Soviet society viewed the German advance in this way, the majority of the Soviet population viewed German forces as occupiers.

In areas such as Estonia , Latvia , and Lithuania which had been annexed by the Soviet Union in the Wehrmacht was tolerated by a relatively more significant part of the native population.

This was particularly true for the territories of Western Ukraine, recently rejoined to the Soviet Union, where the anti-Polish and anti-Soviet Ukrainian nationalist underground hoped in vain to establish the "independent state", relying on German armed force.

However, Soviet society as a whole was hostile to the invading Nazis from the very start. The nascent national liberation movements among Ukrainians and Cossacks , and others were viewed by Hitler with suspicion; some, especially those from the Baltic States, were co-opted into the Axis armies and others brutally suppressed.

None of the conquered territories gained any measure of self-rule. Instead, the Nazi ideologues saw the future of the East as one of settlement by German colonists, with the natives killed, expelled, or reduced to slave labour.

The cruel and brutally inhumane treatment of Soviet civilians, women, children and elderly, the daily bombings of civilian cities and towns, Nazi pillaging of Soviet villages and hamlets and unprecedented harsh punishment and treatment of civilians in general were some of the primary reasons for Soviet resistance to Nazi Germany's invasion.

Indeed, the Soviets viewed Germany's invasion as an act of aggression and an attempt to conquer and enslave the local population.

Regions closer to the front were managed by military powers of the region, in other areas such as the Baltic states annexed by the USSR in , Reichscommissariats were established.

As a rule, the maximum in loot was extracted. His opening speech was clear about German policy: "I am known as a brutal dog Our job is to suck from Ukraine all the goods we can get hold of I am expecting from you the utmost severity towards the native population.

Atrocities against the Jewish population in the conquered areas began almost immediately, with the dispatch of Einsatzgruppen task groups to round up Jews and shoot them.

The massacres of Jews and other ethnic minorities were only a part of the deaths from the Nazi occupation.

Many hundreds of thousands of Soviet civilians were executed, and millions more died from starvation as the Germans requisitioned food for their armies and fodder for their draft horses.

As they retreated from Ukraine and Belarus in —44, the German occupiers systematically applied a scorched earth policy, burning towns and cities, destroying infrastructure, and leaving civilians to starve or die of exposure.

The Nazi ideology and the maltreatment of the local population and Soviet POWs encouraged partisans fighting behind the front; it motivated even anti-communists or non-Russian nationalists to ally with the Soviets and greatly delayed the formation of German-allied divisions consisting of Soviet POWs see Ostlegionen.

These results and missed opportunities contributed to the defeat of the Wehrmacht. Vadim Erlikman has detailed Soviet losses totalling Military losses of Civilian deaths totalled Additional famine deaths, which totalled one million during —47, are not included here.

The southern offensive, spearheaded by 4th Panzer Army , led by Gen. Hoth , with three Tank Corps made more headway.

Battle was joined on 12 July, with about one thousand tanks being engaged. After the war, the battle near Prochorovka was idealised by Soviet historians as the largest tank battle of all time.

The meeting engagement at Prochorovka was a Soviet defensive success, albeit at heavy cost. Tank losses on both sides have been the source of controversy ever since.

Although the 5th Guards Tank Army did not attain its objectives, the German advance had been halted. At the end of the day both sides had fought each other to a standstill, but regardless of the German failure in the north Erich von Manstein proposed he continue the attack with the 4th Panzer Army.

The Red Army started the strong offensive operation in the northern Orel salient and achieved a breakthrough on the flank of the German 9th Army.

Also worried by the Allies' landing in Sicily on 10 July, Hitler made the decision to halt the offensive even as the German 9th Army was rapidly giving ground in the north.

The Germans' final strategic offensive in the Soviet Union ended with their defence against a major Soviet counteroffensive that lasted into August.

The Kursk offensive was the last on the scale of and that the Wehrmacht was able to launch; subsequent offensives would represent only a shadow of previous German offensive might.

The Soviet multi-stage summer offensive started with the advance into the Orel salient. Although intense battles of movement throughout late July and into August saw the Tigers blunting Soviet tank attacks on one axis, they were soon outflanked on another line to the west as the Soviet forces advanced down the Psel , and Kharkov was abandoned for the final time on 22 August.

The German forces on the Mius , now comprising the 1st Panzer Army and a reconstituted 6th Army, were by August too weak to repulse a Soviet attack on their own front, and when the Red Army hit them they retreated all the way through the Donbass industrial region to the Dnieper, losing half the farmland that Germany had invaded the Soviet Union to exploit.

At this time Hitler agreed to a general withdrawal to the Dnieper line, along which was meant to be the Ostwall , a line of defence similar to the Westwall Siegfried Line of fortifications along the German frontier in the west.

The main problem for the Wehrmacht was that these defences had not yet been built; by the time Army Group South had evacuated eastern Ukraine and begun withdrawing across the Dnieper during September, the Soviet forces were hard behind them.

A second attempt by the Red Army to gain land using parachutists, mounted at Kaniv on 24 September, proved as disappointing as at Dorogobuzh eighteen months previously.

The paratroopers were soon repelled — but not until still more Red Army troops had used the cover they provided to get themselves over the Dnieper and securely dug in.

As September ended and October started, the Germans found the Dnieper line impossible to hold as the Soviet bridgeheads grew.

Important Dnieper towns started to fall, with Zaporozhye the first to go, followed by Dnepropetrovsk. Finally, early in November the Red Army broke out of its bridgeheads on either side of Kiev and captured the Ukrainian capital, at that time the third largest city in the Soviet Union.

This battle also enabled Army Group South to recapture Korosten and gain some time to rest. However, on Christmas Eve the retreat began anew when the First Ukrainian Front renamed from the Voronezh Front struck them in the same place.

The Soviet advance continued along the railway line until the Polish—Soviet border was reached on 3 January In the second week of January they swung north, meeting Vatutin's tank forces which had swung south from their penetration into Poland and surrounding ten German divisions at Korsun—Shevchenkovsky, west of Cherkassy.

Hitler's insistence on holding the Dnieper line, even when facing the prospect of catastrophic defeat, was compounded by his conviction that the Cherkassy pocket could break out and even advance to Kiev, but Manstein was more concerned about being able to advance to the edge of the pocket and then implore the surrounded forces to break out.

By 16 February the first stage was complete, with panzers separated from the contracting Cherkassy pocket only by the swollen Gniloy Tikich river.

Under shellfire and pursued by Soviet tanks, the surrounded German troops, among whom were the 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking , fought their way across the river to safety, although at the cost of half their number and all their equipment.

They assumed the Red Army would not attack again, with the spring approaching, but on 3 March the Soviet Ukrainian Front went over to the offensive.

Having already isolated the Crimea by severing the Perekop isthmus , Malinovsky's forces advanced across the mud to the Romanian border, not stopping on the river Prut.

After two weeks' of heavy fighting, the 1st Panzer managed to escape the pocket, at the cost of losing almost the entire heavy equipment.

At this point, Hitler sacked several prominent generals, Manstein included. In April, the Red Army took back Odessa , followed by 4th Ukrainian Front's campaign to restore control over the Crimea, which culminated in the capture of Sevastopol on 10 May.

Along Army Group Centre's front, August saw this force pushed back from the Hagen line slowly, ceding comparatively little territory, but the loss of Bryansk, and more importantly Smolensk, on 25 September cost the Wehrmacht the keystone of the entire German defensive system.

The 4th and 9th armies and 3rd Panzer Army still held their own east of the upper Dnieper, stifling Soviet attempts to reach Vitebsk. In a lightning campaign, the Germans were pushed back from Leningrad and Novgorod was captured by Soviet forces.

To Stalin, the Baltic Sea seemed the quickest way to take the battles to the German territory in East Prussia and seize control of Finland.

The German army group "Narwa" included Estonian conscripts , defending the re-establishment of Estonian independence. Accordingly, they stripped troops from Army Group Centre, whose front still protruded deep into the Soviet Union.

The Germans had transferred some units to France to counter the invasion of Normandy two weeks before. The Belorussian Offensive codenamed Operation Bagration , which was agreed upon by Allies at the Tehran Conference in December and launched on 22 June , was a massive Soviet attack, consisting of four Soviet army groups totalling over divisions that smashed into a thinly held German line.

More than 2. At the points of attack, the numerical and quality advantages of the Soviet forces were overwhelming. The Red Army achieved a ratio of ten to one in tanks and seven to one in aircraft over their enemy.

The Germans crumbled. The capital of Belarus , Minsk , was taken on 3 July, trapping some , Germans. Ten days later the Red Army reached the prewar Polish border.

Bagration was, by any measure, one of the largest single operations of the war. The offensive at Estonia claimed another , Soviet soldiers, , of them classed as dead.

The Soviet advance in the south continued into Romania and, following a coup against the Axis-allied government of Romania on 23 August, the Red Army occupied Bucharest on 31 August.

Romania and the Soviet Union signed an armistice on 12 September. The rapid progress of Operation Bagration threatened to cut off and isolate the German units of Army Group North bitterly resisting the Soviet advance towards Tallinn.

Despite a ferocious attack at the Sinimäed Hills , Estonia, the Soviet Leningrad Front failed to break through the defence of the smaller, well-fortified army detachment "Narwa" in terrain not suitable for large-scale operations.

Three armies were pitted there against the Finns, among them several experienced guards rifle formations. The attack breached the Finnish front line of defence in Valkeasaari on 10 June and the Finnish forces retreated to their secondary defence line, the VT-line.

The Soviet attack was supported by a heavy artillery barrage, air bombardments and armoured forces. The VT-line was breached on 14 June and after a failed counterattack in Kuuterselkä by the Finnish armoured division, the Finnish defence had to be pulled back to the VKT-line.

After heavy fighting in the battles of Tali-Ihantala and Ilomantsi , Finnish troops finally managed to halt the Soviet attack.

Whether Stalin was unable or unwilling to come to the aid of the Polish resistance is disputed. Two months later, the Soviet forces won the battle and entered Slovakia.

The Soviet Union finally entered Warsaw on 17 January , after the city was destroyed and abandoned by the Germans. Over three days, on a broad front incorporating four army fronts , the Red Army launched the Vistula—Oder Offensive across the Narew River and from Warsaw.

The Soviets outnumbered the Germans on average by 5— in troops, in artillery, in tanks and in self-propelled artillery. During the full course of the Vistula—Oder operation 23 days , the Red Army forces sustained , total casualties killed, wounded and missing and lost 1, tanks and assault guns.

On 25 January , Hitler renamed three army groups. In the south, the German attempts, in Operation Konrad , to relieve the encircled garrison at Budapest failed and the city fell on 13 February.

On 6 March, the Germans launched what would be their final major offensive of the war, Operation Spring Awakening , which failed by 16 March.

OKW claim German losses of 77, killed, , wounded and , missing, with a total of , men, on the Eastern Front during January and February The East Prussian operation , though often overshadowed by the Vistula—Oder operation and the later battle for Berlin, was in fact one of the largest and costliest operations fought by the Red Army throughout the war.

During the period it lasted 13 January — 25 April , it cost the Red Army , casualties, and 3, tanks and assault guns.

During the first two weeks of April, the Red Army performed their fastest front redeployment of the war. While this redeployment was in progress, gaps were left in the lines and the remnants of the German 2nd Army, which had been bottled up in a pocket near Danzig, managed to escape across the Oder.

The Soviet offensive had two objectives. Because of Stalin's suspicions about the intentions of the Western Allies to hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet sphere of influence , the offensive was to be on a broad front and was to move as rapidly as possible to the west, to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible.

But the over-riding objective was to capture Berlin. The two were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won quickly unless Berlin was taken.

Another consideration was that Berlin itself held strategic assets, including Adolf Hitler and part of the German atomic bomb program.

The offensive to capture central Germany and Berlin started on 16 April with an assault on the German front lines on the Oder and Neisse rivers.

After several days of heavy fighting the Soviet 1BF and 1UF punched holes through the German front line and were fanning out across central Germany.

They were now free to move west towards the British 21st Army Group and north towards the Baltic port of Stralsund.

On 29 and 30 April, as the Soviet forces fought their way into the centre of Berlin, Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun and then committed suicide by taking cyanide and shooting himself.

Helmuth Weidling , defence commandant of Berlin, surrendered the city to the Soviet forces on 2 May. German losses in this period of the war remain impossible to determine with any reliability.

It included the phrase All forces under German control to cease active operations at hours Central European time on 8 May The war in Europe was over.

In the Soviet Union the end of the war is considered to be 9 May, when the surrender took effect Moscow time.

This date is celebrated as a national holiday — Victory Day — in Russia as part of a two-day 8—9 May holiday and some other post-Soviet countries.

The ceremonial Victory parade was held in Moscow on 24 June. The German Army Group Centre initially refused to surrender and continued to fight in Czechoslovakia until about 11 May.

A small German garrison on the Danish island of Bornholm refused to surrender until they were bombed and invaded by the Soviets. The island was returned to the Danish government four months later.

After the German defeat, Joseph Stalin promised his allies Truman and Churchill, that he would attack the Japanese within 90 days of the German surrender.

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria began on 8 August , with an assault on the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and neighbouring Mengjiang ; the greater offensive would eventually include northern Korea , southern Sakhalin , and the Kuril Islands.

Apart from the Battles of Khalkhin Gol , it marked the only military action of the Soviet Union against Imperial Japan ; at the Yalta Conference , it had agreed to Allied pleas to terminate the neutrality pact with Japan and enter the Second World War's Pacific theatre within three months after the end of the war in Europe.

While not a part of the Eastern Front operations, it is included here because the commanders and much of the forces used by the Red Army came from the European Theatre of operations and benefited from the experience gained there.

In many ways this was a 'perfect' operation, delivered with the skill gained during the bitter fighting with the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe over four years.

The distinctly brutal nature of warfare on the Eastern Front was exemplified by an often wilful disregard for human life by both sides.

It was also reflected in the ideological premise for the war, which also saw a momentous clash between two directly opposed ideologies. Aside from the ideological conflict, the mindframe of the leaders of Germany and the Soviet Union , Hitler and Stalin respectively, contributed to the escalation of terror and murder on an unprecedented scale.

Stalin and Hitler both disregarded human life in order to achieve their goal of victory. This included the terrorisation of their own people, as well as mass deportations of entire populations.

All these factors resulted in tremendous brutality both to combatants and civilians that found no parallel on the Western Front.

According to Time magazine : "By measure of manpower, duration, territorial reach and casualties, the Eastern Front was as much as four times the scale of the conflict on the Western Front that opened with the Normandy invasion.

Army Chief of Staff , calculated that without the Eastern Front, the United States would have had to double the number of its soldiers on the Western Front.

In War II Russia occupies a dominant position and is the decisive factor looking toward the defeat of the Axis in Europe. While in Sicily the forces of Great Britain and the United States are being opposed by 2 German divisions, the Russian front is receiving attention of approximately German divisions.

Whenever the Allies open a second front on the Continent, it will be decidedly a secondary front to that of Russia; theirs will continue to be the main effort.

Without Russia in the war, the Axis cannot be defeated in Europe, and the position of the United Nations becomes precarious. With Germany crushed, there is no power in Europe to oppose her tremendous military forces.

The war inflicted huge losses and suffering upon the civilian populations of the affected countries. Behind the front lines, atrocities against civilians in German-occupied areas were routine, including those carried out as part of the Holocaust.

German and German-allied forces treated civilian populations with exceptional brutality, massacring whole village populations and routinely killing civilian hostages see German war crimes.

According to British historian Geoffrey Hosking , "The full demographic loss to the Soviet peoples was even greater: since a high proportion of those killed were young men of child-begetting age, the postwar Soviet population was 45 to 50 million smaller than post projections would have led one to expect.

After the war, following the Yalta conference agreements between the Allies, the German populations of East Prussia and Silesia were displaced to the west of the Oder—Neisse line , in what became one of the largest forced migrations of people in world history.

Much of the combat took place in or close to populated areas, and the actions of both sides contributed to massive loss of civilian life and tremendous material damage.

The largest number of civilian deaths in a single city was 1. Wolves and foxes fleeing westward from the killing zone, as the Soviet army advanced between and , were responsible for a rabies epidemic that spread slowly westwards, reaching the coast of the English Channel by The Soviet Union and Nazi Germany were both ideologically driven states by Soviet communism and by Nazism respectively , in which the foremost political leaders had near-absolute power.

The character of the war was thus determined by the political leaders and their ideology to a much greater extent than in any other theatre of World War II.

Adolf Hitler exercised tight control over the German war-effort, spending much of his time in his command bunkers most notably at Rastenburg in East Prussia , at Vinnitsa in Ukraine , and under the garden of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin.

At crucial periods in the war he held daily situation-conferences at which he used his remarkable talent for public speaking to overwhelm opposition from his generals and from the OKW staff with rhetoric.

In part because of the unexpected degree of German success in the Battle of France despite the warnings of the professional military Hitler believed himself a military genius, with a grasp of the total war-effort that eluded his generals.

In August , when Walther von Brauchitsch commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht and Fedor von Bock appealed for an attack on Moscow, Hitler instead ordered the encirclement and capture of Ukraine, in order to acquire the farmland, industry, and natural resources of that country.

In the winter of — Hitler believed that his obstinate refusal to allow the German armies to retreat had saved Army Group Centre from collapse.

He later told Erhard Milch :. I had to act ruthlessly. I had to send even my closest generals packing, two army generals, for example … I could only tell these gentlemen, "Get yourself back to Germany as rapidly as you can — but leave the army in my charge.

And the army is staying at the front. The success of this hedgehog defence outside Moscow led Hitler to insist on the holding of territory when it made no military sense, and to sack generals who retreated without orders.

Supremacy 1942

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